Uighurs 'detained for beards and veils' - leak
A document that appears to give the most powerful insight yet into how China determined the fate of hundreds of thousands of Muslims held in a network of internment camps has been seen by the BBC, APA reports.
Listing the personal details of more than 3,000 individuals from the far western region of Xinjiang, it sets out in intricate detail the most intimate aspects of their daily lives.
The painstaking records - made up of 137 pages of columns and rows - include how often people pray, how they dress, whom they contact and how their family members behave.
China denies any wrongdoing, saying it is combating terrorism and religious extremism.
The document is said to have come, at considerable personal risk, from the same source inside Xinjiang that leaked a batch of highly sensitive material published last year.
One of the world's leading experts on China's policies in Xinjiang, Dr Adrian Zenz, a senior fellow at the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation in Washington, believes the latest leak is genuine.
"This remarkable document presents the strongest evidence I've seen to date that Beijing is actively persecuting and punishing normal practices of traditional religious beliefs," he says.
One of the camps mentioned in it, the "Number Four Training Centre" has been identified by Dr Zenz as among those visited by the BBC as part of a tour organised by the Chinese authorities in May last year.
Much of the evidence uncovered by the BBC team appears to be corroborated by the new document, redacted for publication to protect the privacy of those included in it.
It contains details of the investigations into 311 main individuals, listing their backgrounds, religious habits, and relationships with many hundreds of relatives, neighbours and friends.
Verdicts written in a final column decide whether those already in internment should remain or be released, and whether some of those previously released need to return.
It is evidence that appears to directly contradict China's claim that the camps are merely schools.
In an article analysing and verifying the document, Dr Zenz argues that it also offers a far deeper understanding of the real purpose of the system.
It allows a glimpse inside the minds of those making the decisions, he says, laying bare the "ideological and administrative micromechanics" of the camps.
Row 598 contains the case of a 38-year-old woman with the first name Helchem, sent to a re-education camp for one main reason: she was known to have worn a veil some years ago.
It is just one of a number of cases of arbitrary, retrospective punishment.
Others were interned simply for applying for a passport - proof that even the intention to travel abroad is now seen as a sign of radicalisation in Xinjiang.
In row 66, a 34-year-old man with the first name Memettohti was interned for precisely this reason, despite being described as posing "no practical risk".
And then there's the 28-year-old man Nurmemet in row 239, put into re-education for "clicking on a web-link and unintentionally landing on a foreign website".
Again, his case notes describe no other issues with his behaviour.
The 311 main individuals listed are all from Karakax County, close to the city of Hotan in southern Xinjiang, an area where more than 90% of the population is Uighur.
Predominantly Muslim, the Uighurs are closer in appearance, language and culture to the peoples of Central Asia than to China's majority ethnicity, the Han Chinese.
In recent decades the influx of millions of Han settlers into Xinjiang has led to rising ethnic tensions and a growing sense of economic exclusion among Uighurs.
Those grievances have sometimes found expression in sporadic outbreaks of violence, fuelling a cycle of increasingly harsh security responses from Beijing.
It is for this reason that the Uighurs have become the target - along with Xinjiang's other Muslim minorities, like the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz - of the campaign of internment.
The "Karakax List", as Dr Zenz calls the document, encapsulates the way the Chinese state now views almost any expression of religious belief as a signal of disloyalty.
To root out that perceived disloyalty, he says, the state has had to find ways to penetrate deep into Uighur homes and hearts.
In early 2017, when the internment campaign began in earnest, groups of loyal Communist Party workers, known as "village-based work teams", began to rake through Uighur society with a massive dragnet.
With each member assigned a number of households, they visited, befriended and took detailed notes about the "religious atmosphere" in the homes; for example, how many Korans they had or whether religious rites were observed.
The Karakax List appears to be the most substantial evidence of the way this detailed information gathering has been used to sweep people into the camps.
It reveals, for example, how China has used the concept of "guilt by association" to incriminate and detain whole extended family networks in Xinjiang.
For every main individual, the 11th column of the spreadsheet is used to record their family relationships and their social circle.
Iran's Health Ministry confirms 2,901 new coronavirus cases, total number surpasses 38,000
Alibaba co-founder Jack Ma sends medical supplies to seven more Asian countries to fight coronavirus
Ireland reports 10 more coronavirus deaths to bring total to 46
Medevac plane explosion kills eight on takeoff from Philippine capital
Turkey: Death toll from coronavirus rises to 131
Philippines reports 343 additional coronavirus cases, three new deaths
Former President of Azerbaijan Futsal Federation dies
Britain orders 10,000 ventilators in fight against coronavirus
Slovak government plans 1 billion euro a month in help for firms, workers
Coronavirus death toll in Italy's Lombardy rises by around 416 in a day
BIS chief: Governments, central banks must boost efforts to help economies cope with crisis
Coronavirus outbreak: Confirmed cases in Pakistan rise to 1,563
Azerbaijan’s MIA: Measures are being continued for making people to comply with special quarantine regime
Situation outside NYC hospital as coronavirus cases in US soar - Video
Plane with medics and patients crashes at Manila airport, killing 8 passengers - PHOTO
US Navy 'headed into choppy waters’ after virus outbreak on aircraft carrier, American admiral says
UFC head confesses to having problems with organising Khabib-Ferguson fight
Russia concerned by proximity of US bioweapon labs amid outbreak
Movement along Bibiheybat highway temporarily restricted
27 more people test positive for coronavirus in Azerbaijan
Two more COVID-19 patients die in Karachi
Husband of Netanyahu Adviser reportedly tests positive for coronavirus
Health Ministry: Spread of coronavirus disease in China largely stopped
UK coronavirus death toll surges to 1,228, number of cases rises to 19,522
Elchin Guliyev and Kamaleddin Heydarov meet quarantined citizens arriving from Russia - PHOTO
Portuguese schoolboy, 14, with no underlying health conditions becomes 'youngest' person to die of coronavirus in Europe
Meghan Markle, Prince Harry split with Queen over email as more drama surfaces
Iran's Health Ministry confirms 2,901 new coronavirus cases, total number surpasses 38,000
Umayra Taghiyeva: "Air quality in Baku has noticeably improved”
Number of coronavirus cases in Netherlands rises by 1,104 to 10,866, 132 new deaths
Shafiga Mammadova awarded 1st degree Labor order - DECREE
Mali holds election despite coronavirus and insurgency
Pope backs U.N. chief's call for global ceasefire to focus on coronavirus
Russian grandmaster: “Any preferences to Teimour Radjabov should be given in the next cycle”
Russia and US suspend new START Treaty inspections until May due to coronavirus
Number of confirmed coronavirus cases in Japan surpasses 2,500
Saudi Arabia expands partial lockdown, German tourists leave UAE
Exclusive: Qatar Airways says it will need state support as cash runs out
US-led coalition departs K1 air base in Kirkuk, Iraq
Iran: Rebellion and fires in Hamedan prison, prisoners escape
Video conference held in Azerbaijani Parliament for the first time
One of main promoters of so-called "Armenian genocide" dies from coronavirus
Boxer Amir Khan to donate Rs40 million to Pakistan for coronavirus relief
Kate and William urge public to look after mental health in times of coronavirus
EU's credibility, utility is at play in coronavirus crisis, French European Affairs Minister warns
Michael Essien gets coaching job in Azerbaijan
Iran's death toll from coronavirus reaches 2,640
Putin orders measures to support small, medium enterprises amid COVID-19 pandemic by Monday
Iran President: COVID-19 here to stay as no treatment developed yet
Maduro vows to unleash 'Bolivarian fury' on US if Washington targets Venezuelan leaders
Uefa boss admits season ‘will probably be lost’ if coronavirus crisis continues beyond end of June
US to top up strategic oil reserve with 77 million barrels
Slogan of President Ilham Aliyev “We are strong together” at the Flame Towers! - VIDEO
People, who do not follow rules of special quarantine regime, being found administrative responsible
European Parliament holds extraordinary session on COVID-19 pandemic - VIDEO
Baku police continue prophylactic measures against coronavirus - VIDEO
Azerbaijan commemorates Khojaly genocide - PHOTOSESSION
14 years pass since establishment of the Ministry of Emergency Situations: They always come to your aid in any difficult moments - PHOTOSESSION - VIDEO
First Vice-President Mehriban Aliyeva attended opening ceremony of rebuilt Azerbaijan pavilion at Exhibition of Achievements of National Economy in Moscow - UPDATED
Open Doors Day and the military oath-taking ceremony were held on the occasion of the State Flag Day
An exhibition that also presents President Ilham Aliyev's photo opened in Moscow
Japan confirms 14 coronavirus cases at medical center: Kyodo
Angela Merkel in quarantine
Coronavirus death toll climbs to 30 in Turkey