The Senate voted 77 to 19 on Tuesday to advance a short-term funding measure to avoid a government shutdown at the end of the week.
The Senate stopgap bill, which would fund the government through November 17, includes around $6 billion for domestic disaster responses and another roughly $6 billion in aid for Ukraine.
The Republican-controlled House of Representatives, however, planned to push along with its own partisan bill that was unlikely to win support in the Democratic-majority Senate.
The split between the two chambers suggested the federal government was increasingly likely to enter its fourth shutdown in a decade on Sunday.
Hundreds of thousands of federal workers will be furloughed and a wide range of services, from economic data releases to nutrition benefits, will be suspended beginning on Sunday if the two sides do not reach agreement.